The world of surface physics and chemistry on the nanoscopic scale is the world of electronically, vibrationally and rotationally excited states, of charge and atom exchange, chemical bond breaking and the creation of new chemical bonds. These phenomena occur locally and at the same time they are influenced by the movement of electrons and atoms on a much larger scale. The coupling of the local surface region where atom and charge rearrangements take place to the remote parts of the system provides the screening of the local region via different polarizations of the environement.
The understanding of these processes on the atomic scale is a rather complex task in view of the large number of particles and elementary excitations involved. Furthermore the processes, dynamical in their nature, occur on different time scales.
Quantum Nano Dynamics (QND) is a quantum field theoretical approach designed to study systems of nanoscopic dimensions in interaction with their infinite or semi-infinite polarizable environment. The nanoscopic local region (including atoms, molecules, ions, metal clusters, local electron, phonon, plasmon, gravonon fields) is described in a detailed way. The local nanoscopic region is embedded in a semi-infinite polarizable medium by explicitly introducing the interaction with the polarizations in the environment.
Within QND the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanicsis is implied and the chooser mechanism of localization of quantum particles is not operating. However, in all QND calculations it is assumed that an electron, an atom or a molecule are transiently trapped, i.e. ''decohered'' in local states. This is essential for all results presented.
A theory constructed on the basis of Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, assuming for instance that the incoming electron in the STM is prepared asymptotically deep in the bulk of the STM tip and the measurement means a collapse of the scattered electron in the bulk of the probe, does not produce the QND results. This is the principle reason why the so called ''ab initio'' calculations based on the DFT formalism fail to reproduce the experimental results or unplausible fitting and or interpretation procedures are required to achieve the agreement with experiment. Within EQM the localization of the electron in a transient negative ion resonance would be the result of the calculation.
The experiments interpreted within the QND theory are therefore examples that the
standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics cannot explain all phenomena in the microscopic
field, in contrast to the generally accepted belief.